WELCOME FREINDS……I’M RAVEEN LAMARA THIS TIME , I’M GOING TO SHARE A FEW HACKS TO BOOST YOUR MEMORY POWER FOR GREAT DIFFICULT EXAM…
We’ve scoured our brains and the internet for the best study hacks to help your brain remember information quicker and easier and ultimately help you do better in your exams.
1. Walk Before An Exam
It’s been proven that exercise can boost your memory and brain power. Research conducted by Dr. Chuck Hillman of the University of Illinois provides evidence that about 20 minutes exercise before an exam can improve performance.I also walk daily which makes me my mind relax and i become more creative person.
2. Speak Out Loud Instead of Simply Reading
Although this may make you look a little crazy, give it a go! You will be surprised how much more you can remember when you’ve said it out loud. Warning: Don’t try this in a crowded library!
3. Reward Yourself With A Treat
There are many ways to integrate a reward system into your study habits. Here’s a simple way to motivate yourself to study with Gummy Bears:
4. Teach What You Have Learned
The best way to test if you really understand something is to try to teach it to someone else. If you can’t get anyone to listen to you explain the Pythagorean Theorem, why not teach a class of stuffed animals!
Join GoConqr for free and you’ll have access to Study Groups in which students from all over the world share their secrets to better academic results
5. Create Mental Associations
The ability to make connections is not only an easier way to remember information, but it’s the fuel of creativity and intelligence. Steve Jobs famously said “Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it, they just saw something”.
6. Draw Diagrams
Drawing diagrams will help you to visualise information which would be hard to describe. This creates a visual memory in your mind which can be recalled in an exam. You may even be asked to draw or label diagrams such as the human heart in your exam so get practicing!
7. Times New Roman is the Fastest Font to Read
Simply put – there’s a reason why Times New Roman is the default font on most applications!
8. Use Apps to Block Distracting Sites
The SelfControl app helps you to avoid distractions by blocking websites for a certain amount of time. Discover more student apps to make student life easier in our blog post. while studying you shouldn’t use any social media , browsing..etc..,.
9. Watch a Documentary on the Topic
Documentaries are an entertaining way of compacting an entire story into a short timeframe. This will help you remember key details from a story plus you may even get extra credit for mentioning that you took the initiative and watched a film about the topic!
Check out the infographic in this blog post which helps you decide which documentary to watch.
10. Search Google Like a Pro
Save time when researching sources online by mastering the biggest search engine in the world; Google. Follow the tips in this image to find what you need at your fingertips:
11. Create Flashcards for Quick Memory Buzz
12. Take Regular Study Breaks
When your brain is working, you need to take regular study breaks to help your brain absorb more information but also to keep you motivated and focused when you are working. Take a short break after 45-50 minutes study as your focus and concentration will become impaired after this period, anything new after 1 hour 30 minutes does not get assimilated.
13. Listen to the Correct Type of Music
In our blog post “Music for Studying: 10 Tips to Pick the Best Study Music” we looked into the area of how the correct types of music can lead to more productive studying by elevating your mood. Have you made your Mozart Spotify playlist yet?
14. Make Your Study Space Portable
We may be creatures of habit with favourite seats in the library but information retention actually improves when you vary the places where you study.
15. Practice, Practice, Practice…
Practicing sample answers to past exam questions can help train your brain to retrieve information. Create realistic, exam-like condition and test your understanding by using our new Quiz tool.
16. Don’t Stay Up All Night Before an Exam
Make sure to get adequate rest the nights leading up to your exams. When you sleep, your brain assimilates the information you have learned when studying so getting a good night’s sleep will help you remember those pesky maths formulas you need for your exam!
Don’t make this your sleep schedule:
17. Discover News Ways to Learn
Trying new methods of studying can help you find what really works for you. Use technology to your advantage by watching educational TED Talks or downloading useful dictionary apps for example. Read more about the benefits of using technology to study.
18. Use Scents or Gum to Jog Your Memory
This may seem a bit random but spraying an unfamiliar scent while you’re studying can help jog your memory when you spray it again just before an exam. Chewing a strange kind of gum will work the same way.
19. Study in a Group
Studying in a group can help you collect new insights to enhance your learning experience. TheExamTime Groups tool is an innovative spin on the traditional study group formula. Our Groups tool helps you share resources, discuss ideas and interact with members of your team or group project. Sign up here to get started!
Studies say that meditation can help students stay focused when studying. Not only will meditation help you concentrate when studying but it will help reduce pre-exam stress as it improves both mental and physical health.
Check out this Meditation Education infographic on Edutopia which details the educational benefits of meditating:
Our final piece of advice for those of you sitting exams is to stay positive. It’s amazing how a positive attitude can impact on your exam results or motivate you to complete that assignment when all you want to do is go to bed!
HAI…friends im raveen lamara …
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation, description and categorization, among others.
Vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. For example, by means of the body style and the “level of commonality in vehicle construction as defined by number of doors and roof treatment (e.g., sedan, convertible, fastback, hatchback) and number of seats” that require seat belts to meet safety regulations.
Regulatory agencies may also establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount. In the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicle’s construction, engine, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle. In another example, certain cities in the United States in the 1920s chose to exempt electric-powered vehicles because officials believed those vehicles did not cause “substantial wear upon the pavements.”
Another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally (except for Australia, India, and the U.S.), is ISO 3833-1977.
In an example from private enterprise, many car rental companies use the ACRISS Car Classification Code to describe the size, type and equipment of vehicles to ensure that rental agents can match customer needs to available vehicles, regardless of distance between the agent and the rental company or the languages spoken by either party. In the United States, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both vehicle size and other vehicle features such as length and wheelbase.
|Highway Loss Data Institute classification||Definition|
|Sports||Cars with significant high performance features|
|Luxury||Higher-end cars that are not classified as sports|
|Large||Length more than 495.3 cm (195 in) and wheelbase more than 279.4 cm (110 in)|
|Midsize||Length 457.3 to 495.3 cm (180–195 in) and wheelbase 266.8 to 279.4 cm (105–110 in)|
|Small||Length less than 457.2 cm (180 in) and wheelbase less than 266.7 cm (105 in)|
The United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) separates vehicles into classes by the curb weight of the vehicle with standard equipment including the maximum capacity of fuel, oil, coolant, and air conditioning, if so equipped.
|NHTSA classification||Code||Curb weight|
|Passenger cars: mini||PC/Mi||1,500 to 1,999 lb (680–907 kg)|
|Passenger cars: light||PC/L||2,000 to 2,499 lb (907–1,134 kg)|
|Passenger cars: compact||PC/C||2,500 to 2,999 lb (1,134–1,360 kg)|
|Passenger cars: medium||PC/Me||3,000 to 3,499 lb (1,361–1,587 kg)|
|Passenger cars: heavy||PC/H||3,500 lb (1,588 kg) and over|
|Sport utility vehicles||SUV||–|
The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a classification scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls. There are two broad categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, including both power and trailer units.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a vehicle’s total interior passenger and cargo volumes. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme.
|EPA car class||Total passenger and cargo volume (cu. ft.)|
|Two-seaters||Any (designed to seat only two adults)|
|Minicompact||Less than 85 cu ft (2,407 l)|
|Subcompact||85 to 99 cu ft (2,407–2,803 l)|
|Compact||100 to 109 cu ft (2,832–3,087 l)|
|Mid-size||110 to 119 cu ft (3,115–3,370 l)|
|Large||120 cu ft (3,398 l) or more|
|Small station wagons||Less than 130 cu ft (3,681 l)|
|Mid-size station wagons||130 to 159 cu ft (3,681–4,502 l)|
|Large station wagons||160 cu ft (4,531 l) or more|
A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA. The Canadian National Collision Database (NCDB) system defines “passenger car” as a unique class, but also identifies two other categories involving passenger vehicles—the “passenger van” and “light utility vehicle”—and these categories are inconsistently handled across the country with the boundaries between the vehicles increasingly blurred.
In Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications.
Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically seat only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels. Microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called “Bubble cars“. More recent microcars are often electric powered.
Examples of microcars:
In 2012, Japan’s Transport and Tourism Ministry allowed local government to use ultracompact cars as transport for residents and tourists in their limiting areas. The size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use minicars standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of ultracompact cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are cars smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less and only one seat for the driver.
A city car is a small automobile intended for use in urban areas. Unlike microcars, a city car’s greater speed, capacity and (in perception at least) occupant protection are safer in mixed traffic environments and weather conditions. While city cars can reach highway speeds, that is not their intended use. In Japan, city cars are called kei cars. Kei cars have to meet strict size and engine requirements: engines have a maximum displacement of 660 cc and the car’s length must be under 3400 mm.
Examples of kei cars:
Examples of city cars:
Other small cars:
This class is known as supermini in the UK, subcompact in North America. Superminis have three, four or five doors, and even as an estate shape. They are designed to seat four passengers comfortably. Current supermini hatchbacks are approximately 3900 mm long, while saloons and estate cars are around 4200 mm long. Currently (2013) sedan variants are generally not available in Europe and are marketed at a lower price than hatchback models in North America.
In Europe, the first superminis were the Fiat 500 of 1957 and the Austin Mini of 1959. Nowadays, superminis can be some premium cars, like the Citroën DS3, named 2010 Car of the Year by Top Gear Magazine. Superminis are some of the best selling vehicles in Europe with 25% of the market shares (2013). In 2007, the Peugeot 207 has been the most sold car in Europe, whereas the best seller is almost systematically a car from the compactsegment.
In Australia, the motoring press tends to distinguish between a light car such as the Daihatsu Charade or early models of the Holden Barina, and slightly larger models such as the Ford Fiesta which is considered to be a small car. As the general size of vehicles in this class has gradually increased, the category of light car has almost disappeared.
Examples of superminis/subcompact cars:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Superminis”.
Small family car/compact car
Small family/compact cars refer to the hatchbacks and shortest saloons and estate cars with similar size. They are approximately 4,250 mm (167 in) long in case of hatchbacks and 4,500 mm (177 in) in the case of saloons and estate cars. Compact cars have room for five adults and usually have engines between 1.4 and 2.2 litres, but some have engines of up to 2.5 litres. Some early “muscle” compacts had optional V8 engines of up to 6.6 liters. These are the most popular vehicles in most developed countries.
Examples of hatchback small family cars/compact cars:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Small Family Cars”. In Australia, this class is generally referred to as being small-medium sized cars.
Large family / mid-size
Traditionally, mid-size cars are drawn with a sedan shape, nevertheless some designers introduced some innovations during the 2010s, like the Citroën DS5 which is a hatchback large family car. This joins the general trend of making the design in a more sportive way and with a more cross-over approach, like liftback for SUV or four doors sportive sedan coupés.
Saloons / sedans
Large family / mid-size
A class described as “large family” in Europe and “mid-size” in the USA, these cars have room for five adults and a large trunk (boot). Engines are more powerful than small family/compact cars and six-cylinder engines are more common than in smaller cars. Car sizes vary from region to region; in Europe, large family cars are rarely over 4,700 mm (15.4 ft) long, while in North America, Middle East andAustralasia they may be well over 4,800 mm (15.7 ft).
Examples of large family cars/mid-size cars:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Large Family Cars”. These are known in Australia as Medium sized cars.
This term is used most in North America, Middle East and Australia where it refers to the largest affordable sedans on the market. Full-size cars may be well over 4,900 mm (16.1 ft) long.
Examples of full-size cars:
Crossover SUVs are derived from an automobile platform using a monocoque construction with light off-road capability and lower ground clearance than SUVs. They may be styled similar to conventional “off-roaders”, or may be look similar to an estate car or station wagon.
Examples of crossover SUVs:
Minivans / MPVs
Also known as “people carriers”, this class of cars resembles tall estate cars. Larger MPVs may have seating for up to eight passengers. (Beyond that size, similar vehicles tend to be derived from vans (see below) and in Europe are called minibuses.)
Being taller than a family car improves visibility for the driver (while reducing visibility for other road users) and may help access for theelderly or disabled. They also offer more seats and increased load capacity than hatchbacks or estate cars.
Examples of mini MPVs:
Examples of compact MPVs:
Both categories are equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Small MPVs”.
Examples of large MPVs / minivans:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “MPVs”.
These are luxurious equivalents to mid-size and compact cars. Rear seat room and trunk space are smaller than executive cars simply because of their smaller overall size.
Examples of compact premium cars/entry-level luxury cars:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Large Family Cars”.
These are luxurious equivalents to full-size cars. This also refers to the largest hatchbacks within the similar length in this class, such as thePorsche Panamera.
Examples of executive cars/mid-luxury cars:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Executive Cars”.
Full-size luxury / Grand saloon
Also known as full-size luxury cars, grand saloons, or premium large cars, while “Oberklasse” is used in Germany. Typically a four-door saloon (sedan). These are the most powerful saloons, with six, eight and twelve-cylinder engines and have more equipment than smaller models. Vehicles in this category include some of the models from the flagship lines of luxury car brands, such as Cadillac CT6, Lincoln Town Car and Maserati Quattroporte.
Examples of grand saloons:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Executive Cars”.
Estate cars / station wagonS
A station wagon (also known as an estate or estate car) is an automobile with a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design—to include an A, B, and C-pillar, as well as a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume.
Examples of estates/station wagons:
A hot hatch is a high-performance hatchback, based on standard superminis or small family cars with improved performance, handlingand styling. Hot hatches are very popular in Europe, where hatchbacks are by far the most common body style for this size of car. In North America, sport compacts are usually sold as saloons or coupés rather than hatchbacks.
Examples of hot hatches:
Sports saloon / sports sedan
Examples of sports saloons/sedans:
Examples of sport compact saloons/sedans:
The term “sports car” does not appear to have a clear definition. It is commonly used to describe vehicles which prioritise acceleration and handling; however, some people claim it is also defined as a vehicle with two seats.
A Sports car (sportscar or sport car) is a small, usually two-seat, two-door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite.
Examples of sports cars:
Larger, more powerful and heavier than sports cars, these vehicles typically have a FR layout and seating for four passengers (2+2). These are more expensive than sports cars but not as expensive as supercars. Grand Tourers encompass both luxury and high-performance. Some grand tourers are hand-built.
Examples of grand tourers:
Supercar is a term generally used for ultra-high-end exotic cars, whose performance is superior to that of its contemporaries. The proper application of the term is subjective and disputed, especially among enthusiasts.
Examples of supercars:
The muscle car term generally refers to rear wheel drive mid-size cars with powerful V8 engines, manufactured in the U.S. Some definitions limit it to two-door vehicles; however, others include four-door body style versions. Although opinions vary, it is generally accepted that classic muscle cars were produced in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Muscle cars were also produced in Australia and other nations.
Examples of American muscle cars from the 1960s and 1970s:
Examples of Australian muscle cars:
The pony car is a class of American automobile launched and inspired by the Ford Mustang in 1964. It describes an affordable, compact, highly styled car with a sporty or performance-oriented image.
Examples of pony cars:
A body design that features a flexibly operating roof for open or enclosed mode driving. Also known as a cabriolet or roadster (if a 2-seater). Historically, convertibles used folding roof structures with fabric or other flexible materials. Some designs have roofs made of metal or other stiff materials that retract into the body.
Examples of cabriolets:
Off-road vehicles, or “off-roaders” are sometimes referred to as “four-wheel drives“, “four by fours”, or 4x4s — this can happen colloquially in cases where certain models or even an entire range does not possess four-wheel drive.
Sport utility vehicle
Sport utility vehicles are off-road vehicles with four-wheel drive and true off-road capability. They most often feature high ground clearance and an upright, boxy body design. Sport Utilities are typically defined by a body on frame construction which offers more off-road capability but reduced on-road ride comfort and handling compared to a cross-over or car based utility vehicle.
Examples of compact SUVs:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Small Off-Roaders”.
Examples of SUVs:
This category is equivalent to the EuroNCAP class “Large Off-Roaders”.
In some countries, the term “van” can refer to a small panel van based on a passenger car design (often the estate model / station wagon); it also refers to light trucks, which themselves are sometimes based on SUVs or MPVs. (But note that those retaining seats and windows, while being larger and more utilitarian than MPVs, may be called “minibuses“.) The term is also used in the term “camper van” (or just “camper”) — equivalent to a North American recreational vehicle (RV).
In the United States, the term “van” refers to vehicles that, like European minibuses, are even larger than large MPVs and are rarely seen being driven for domestic purposes — except for “conversion vans”. These possess extremely large interior space and are often more intended for hauling cargo than people. Most vans use body-on-frame construction and are thus suitable for extensive modification and coachwork, known as conversion. Conversion vans are often quite luxurious, boasting comfortable seats, soft rides, built-in support for electronics such as television sets, and other amenities. The more elaborate conversion vans straddle the line between cars and recreational vehicles.
Examples of North American “vans”:
Examples of European “vans”:
Examples of Japanese “vans”
- A generic South African term for light pickup truck.
- refers to cars made in the early 1900s in Europe. Baquet means bath tub. These cars had two rows of raised seats similar to horse-drawn carriages. Baquets usually did not have front doors, a top, or windshield.
- A Buggy is an automobile with wheels that project beyond the vehicle body.
- Cabrio coach
- Normally a two-door body design with special form of car roof, where a retractable textile cover amounts to a large sunroof.
- A 2-door, 2- or 4-seat car with a fixed roof. Its doors are often longer than those of an equivalent sedan and the rear passenger area smaller; the roof may also be low. In cases where the rear seats are very small and not intended for regular use it is called a 2+2 (pronounced “two plus two”). Originally, a coupé was required to have only one side window per side, but this consideration has not been used for many years.
- Coupé utility
- A passenger-car derived vehicle with an integral exterior cargo area.
- Crossover (or CUV)
- A loose marketing term to describe a vehicle that blends features of a SUV with features of a car — especially forgoing the body on frame construction of the SUV in favor of the car’s unibody or monocoque construction. Crossovers usually borrow drivetrains and other parts from traditional cars in the same manufacturer’s line. Crossovers typically employ an FF layout or an FF-based four-wheel drive layout with a transverse engine, rather than an FR layout or an FR-based 4WD layout with a longitudinal engine as is typically used on traditional truck-based SUVs.
- Drop Head Coupe
- Generally a European term referring to a 2-door, 4 place automobile with a retractable canvas / cloth top with both a padded headliner and rollup windows (as opposed to side curtains).
- British name for a station wagon.
- A design where the roof slopes at a smooth angle to the tail of the car, but the rear window does not open as a separate “door”.
- Flower Car
- in US, similar to ute in Australia, i.e. generic for Chevy El Camino, Ford Ranchero, GMC Sprint/Diablo, etc.
- Incorporates a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a top-hinged liftgate—and features such as fold-down rear seats to enable flexibility within the shared passenger/cargo volume. As a two-box design, the body style typically includes A, B and C-pillars, and may include a D-pillar.
- Originally a removable solid roof on a convertible; later, also a fixed-roof car whose doors have no fixed window frames, which is designed to resemble such a convertible.
- A converted car (often a station wagon), light truck or minivan usually used to transport the dead. Often longer and heavier than the vehicle on which they are usually based. Can sometimes double up as an ambulance in some countries, such as the United States, especially in rural areas.
- Originally, a car with a tapered rear that cuts off abruptly.
- A limousine with the passenger section covered by a convertible top.
- Leisure activity vehicle
- A small van, generally related to a supermini, with a second or even a third seat row, and a large, tall boot.
- A broad marketing term for a hatchback, which incorporates a shared passenger and cargo volume, with rearmost accessibility via a top-hinged liftgate.
- By definition, a chauffeur-driven car with a (normally glass-windowed) division between the front seats and the rear. In German, the term simply means a sedan.
- Term for a boxy wagon-type of car that is smaller than a conventional minivan; often without rear sliding door(s). Examples are Citroën Picasso, Renault Scénic, Toyota Yaris Verso or Mercedes-Benz A-Class. In Japan, this term is used for Kei car based vans.
- Designed to carry fewer people than a full-size bus, generally up to 16 people in multiple rows of seats. Passenger access in normally via a sliding door on one side of the vehicle. One example of a van with a minibus version available is the Ford Transit.
- Multi-purpose vehicle, a large car or small bus designed to be used on and off-road and easily convertible to facilitate loading of goods from facilitating carrying people.
- A configuration where the third box of a three-box styling configuration is less pronounced — especially where the rear deck (third box) is short or where the rear window is upright.
- People carrier or people mover
- European name to describe what is usually referred to in North America as a Minivan.
- A Phaeton is a style of open car or carriage without proper weather protection for passengers.
- Pickup truck (or pickup)
- A light-duty, open-bed truck.
- Usually a prefix to coupé, fastback, or hardtop; completely open at the sides when the windows are down, without a central pillar, e.g. the Sunbeam Rapier fastback coupé.
- Originally an open car like a roadster, but with a soft top (cloth top) that can be raised or lowered. Unlike a convertible, it had no roll-up side windows. Now often used as slang for a convertible.
- Retractable Hardtop
- aka Coupé convertible or Coupé Cabriolet. A type of convertible forgoing a foldable textile roof in favor of a multi-segment rigid roof retracts into the lower bodywork.
- Originally a two-seat open car with minimal weather protection — without top or side glass — though possibly with optional hard or soft top and side curtains (i.e., without roll-up glass windows). In modern usage, the term means simply a two-seat sports car convertible, a variation of spyder.
- A car seating four or more with a fixed roof that is full-height up to the rear window. Known in British English as a saloon. Sedans can have 2 or 4-doors. This is the most common body style. In denote a car with fixed window frames, as opposed to the hardtop style wherein the sash, if any, winds down with the glass.
- Sedan delivery
- North American term for a vehicle similar to a wagon but without side windows, similar to a panel truck but with two doors (one on each side), and one or two rear doors
- Sport utility vehicle (SUV)
- Derivative of a pickup truck or 4-wheel-drive vehicle, but with fully enclosed passenger cabin interior and carlike levels of interior equipment.
- Spyder (or Spider)
- Similar to a roadster but originally with less weather protection.Nowadays it simply means a convertible with two seater only. The name comes from the old carriages with two seats and no roof, whose small central cabin and big wheels at the corners are reminiscent of a spider.
- Initially a vehicle used to carry shooting parties with their equipment and game; later used to describe custom-built wagons by high-end coachbuilders, subsequently synonymous with station wagon or estate; and in contemporary usage a three or five-door wagons combining features of a wagon and a coupé.
- Station wagon
- A variant of a sedan/saloon, (also known as estate or estate car) or with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume; access at the back via a third or fifth door instead of a trunk lid; flexible configurations to vary passenger or cargo volume; and two or three rows of seating — in a two-box design with a A, B & C-pillar, as well as a D pillar.
- A derivative of the Targa top, called a T-bar roof, this fixed-roof design has two removable panels and retains a central narrow roof section along the front to back axis of the car (e.g. Toyota MR2 Mark I.)
- Targa top
- A semi-convertible style used on some sports cars, featuring a fully removable hard top roof panel which leaves the A and B pillars in place on the car body.
- Town car (US)
- Essentially the inverse of the landaulet, a historical body style in which the front seats were open and the rear compartment closed, normally with a removable top to cover the front chauffeur’s compartment. In Europe the style is also known as Sedanca de Ville, often shortened to Sedanca or de Ville. Note that the modern Lincoln Town Car derives its name, but nothing else, from this style.
- Australian/New Zealand English term for the vehicles with a cargo bed at the rear (“Pickup” in British and in US English).
- Wagon delivery
- North American term (mainly U.S. and Canada). Similar to a sedan delivery, with four doors.
- In North America “van” refers to a truck-based commercial vehicle of the wagon style, whether used for passenger or commercial use. Usually a van has no windows at the side rear (panel van), although for passenger use, side windows are included. In other parts of the world, ‘van’ denotes a passenger-based wagon with no rear side windows.
Some non-English language terms are familiar from their use on imported vehicles in English-speaking nations even though the terms have not been adopted into English.
- Italian term for a roadster with no roof. The name, roughly “small boat”, comes from an exclamation when the Ferrari 166MM Touring was shown.
- Italian term for a sedan.
- French term for a sedan.
- Italian term for a sport coupé.
- French term for a station wagon.
- Brazilian Portuguese term for a station wagon (specially in the state of Rio de Janeiro). Spanish term also used in Argentina and Uruguay.
- Portuguese term for a station wagon. Not used in Brazilian Portuguese.
- Portuguese nickname for a limousine (the same word for Sword – long piece of metal). Not used in Brazilian Portuguese.
- Spanish and Polish term for a van, in the latter language almost always used in its diminutive form furgonetka.
- Portuguese alternative term (less used) for a van. Used in Brazilian Portuguese, most often for vans but sometimes for panel van variants of passenger cars.
- is a German abbreviation of “Kombinationswagen” (Combination Car) and it is German name for station wagon. Since Germany is a major producer of cars for many European countries, the term Kombi in this meaning is also used in Swedish, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Slovenian, Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian, Hungarian, Spanish, Portuguese, Bulgarian. InAfrikaans and in Australia, Kombi is also used to refer to a Volkswagen Microbus. In Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay the word specifically refers to the VW Microbus.
- Brazilian Portuguese term either designating a van (especially as spoken in the city of São Paulo) or a station wagon (in the city of Rio de Janeiro).
- Spanish term for a sedan. Literally means tourism, used mostly in Latin American countries and Spain.
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Hai,freinds ….im raveen lamara ,There are many systems for classifying types of motorcycles, describing how the motorcycles are put to use, or the designer’s intent, or some combination of the two. Six main categories are widely recognized: cruiser, sport, touring, standard, dual-purpose, and dirt bike. Sometimes sport touring motorcycles are recognized as a seventh category.Strong lines are sometimes drawn between motorcycles and their smaller cousins, mopeds, scooters, and underbones, but other classification schemes include these as types of motorcycles.
There is no universal system for classifying all types of motorcycles. There are strict classification systems enforced by competitive motorcycle sport sanctioning bodies, or legal definitions of a motorcycle established by certain legal jurisdictions for motorcycle registration, emissions, road traffic safety rules or motorcyclist licensing. There are also informal classifications or nicknames used by manufacturers, riders, and the motorcycling media. Some experts do not recognize sub-types, like naked bike, that “purport to be classified” outside the six usual classes, because they fit within one of the main types and are recognizable only by cosmetic changes.
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Street motorcycles are motorcycles designed for being ridden on paved roads. They have smooth tires with a light tread pattern and engines generally in the 125 cc (7.6 cu in) and over range. Most are capable of speeds up to 100 mph (160 km/h), and many of speeds in excess of 125 mph (201 km/h).
The Ducati Monster 696 naked bike
Standards, also called naked bikes or roadsters, are versatile, general purpose street motorcycles. They are recognized primarily by their upright riding position, partway between the reclining rider posture of the cruisers and the forward leaning sport bikes. Footpegs are below the rider and handlebars are high enough to not force the rider to reach far forward, placing the shoulders above the hips in a natural position. Because of their flexibility, lower costs and their engines of moderate output, standards are particularly suited to motorcycle beginners.
Standards usually do not come with fairings or windscreens, or if they have them, they are relatively small. Standard is often a synonym for naked bike, a term that became popular in the 1990s in response to the proliferation of fully faired sport bikes. The standard seemed to have disappeared, fueling nostalgia for the return of the Universal Japanese Motorcycle, which were admired for their simplicity, quality, and versatility.
Muscle bike is a nickname for a motorcycle type, derived from either a standard or sport bike design, that puts a disproportionately high priority on engine power.Roadster is equivalent to standard or naked.
Main article: Cruiser (motorcycle)
Harley-Davidson cruisers and a touring bike (red)
Cruisers are styled after American machines from the 1930s to the early 1960s, such as those made by Harley-Davidson, Indian, andExcelsior-Henderson. Harley-Davidsons largely define the cruiser category, and large-displacement V-twin engines are the norm, although other engine configurations and small to medium displacements also exist. Their engines are tuned for low-end torque, making them less demanding to ride because it is not necessary to shift as frequently to accelerate or maintain control. Cruisers are sometimes called “custom” even in the absence of aftermarket modifications.
The riding position places the feet forward and the hands are up relatively high, so that the spine is erect or leaning back slightly. At low to moderate speeds, cruisers are more comfortable than other styles, but riding for long periods at freeway speeds can lead to fatigue from pulling back on the handlebars to resist the force of the wind against the rider’s chest. Cruisers have limited cornering ability due to a lack of ground clearance.
Choppers are a type of cruiser, so called because they are a “chopped”, or cut-down, version of a production cruiser. Choppers are usually custom projects that result in a bike modified to suit the owner’s ideals, and, as such, are a source of pride and accomplishment. Stereotypically, a chopper may have raked-out forks, small fuel tanks and high handlebars. Choppers were popularised in the Peter Fondafilm Easy Rider. Being designed primarily for visual effect, choppers will not usually be the most efficient riding machines.
A Ducati Diavel power cruiser
Power cruiser is a name used to distinguish bikes in the cruiser class that have significantly higher levels of power. They often come with upgraded brakes and suspensions, better ground clearance, and premium surface finishes, as well as more exotic or non-traditional styling.
Main article: Sport bike
Sport bikes emphasize top speed, acceleration, braking, handling and grip on paved roads, typically at the expense of comfort and fuel economy in comparison to less specialized motorcycles. Because of this, there are certain design elements that most motorcycles of this type will share. Sport bikes have comparatively high performance engines resting inside a lightweight frame. Inline-four engines dominate the sport bike category, with V-twins having a significant presence, and nearly every other engine configuration appearing in small numbers at one time or another. The combination of these elements helps maintain structural integrity and chassis rigidity. Braking systems combine higher performance brake pads and multi-piston calipers that clamp onto oversized vented rotors.Suspension systems are advanced in terms of adjustments and materials for increased stability and durability. Most sport bikes havefairings, often completely enclosing the engine, and windscreens that effectively deflect the air at very high speeds, or at least reduce overall drag.
Sport bikes have high footpegs that position the legs closer to the body to improve ground clearance when cornering, and a long reach to the hand controls, which positions the body and center of gravity forward, above the fuel tank. The rider leans forward into the wind, the force of which can comfortably support the rider’s weight at speeds near 100 mph (160 km/h), but at lower speeds leaves too much weight on the arms and wrists, causing fatigue.
Streetfighters are derived from sport bikes, originally being customized sport bikes with the fairings removed and higher handlebars replacing the low clip-on handlebars. Since the 1990s, factory streetfighters have been produced. As with naked bike and muscle bike (below), the name streetfighter is used to help clarify the middle ground occupied by designs that blend elements of both sport bikes and standards.
Main article: Touring motorcycle
Honda Gold Wing GL1800 touring motorcycle
Although any motorcycle can be equipped and used for touring, touring motorcycles are specifically designed to excel at covering long distances. They have large-displacement engines, fairings and screens that offer good weather and wind protection, large-capacity fuel tanks for long ranges between fill-ups, and a relaxed, upright seating position. Passenger accommodation is excellent and expansive luggage space is the norm for this class. Such bikes can have wet weights of 850–900 lb (390–410 kg) and top 1,300–1,400 lb (590–640 kg) fully loaded with a rider, passenger and gear.
Bagger, full dresser, full dress tourer, or dresser are various names for touring motorcycles, sometimes used disparagingly or jocularly, and originally referring to a Harley-Davidson or other cruisers with full sets of saddlebags. This can now refer to any touring motorcycle.
Main article: Sport touring motorcycle
A BMW R1100RS sport-touring motorcycle
Sport touring motorcycles combine attributes of sport bikes and touring motorcycles. The rider posture is less extreme than a sport bike, giving greater long-distance comfort. Accommodation for a passenger is superior to a sport bike as well, along with increased luggage capacity. Being lighter, at 550–720 lb (250–330 kg) wet, than a pure touring bike and often having racier engines, suspensions, and brakes, sport tourers corner better and are more at home being aggressively ridden on curvy canyon roads. The distinction between touring and sport touring is not always clear as some manufacturers will list the same bike in either category in different markets. TheHonda ST1300 Pan-European, for example, was listed by Honda as a sport touring motorcycle in the United States and Australia, but as a touring motorcycle in Europe.
Main article: Dual-sport motorcycle
Dual-sports, sometimes called dual-purpose or on/off-road motorcycles, are street legal machines that are also designed to enter off-road situations. Typically based on a dirt bike chassis, they have added lights, mirrors, signals, and instruments that allow them to be licensed for public roads. They are higher than other street bikes, with a high center of gravity and tall seat height, allowing good suspension travel for rough ground.
Adventure motorcycles are motorcycles with touring capability on paved and unpaved roads. As a dual-sport they have a significant on-pavement bias and perform well on pavement at higher speeds unlike most dual-sports. Their size, weight and sometimes their tires, however, limits their off road capability. Most adventure motorcycles function well on graded dirt and gravel roads but are less than ideal on more difficult off-pavement terrain.
Supermoto motorcycles were designed to compete on a single course that alternated between three genres of motorcycle racing: road racing, track racing, and motocross. This increasingly popular type of motorcycle is often a dual-sport that has been fitted by the manufacturer with smaller rims and road tires. Supermotos are quickly gaining popularity as street bikes due to their combination of light weight, durability, relatively low cost, and sporty handling.
Scooters, underbones and mopeds
Scooter engine sizes range smaller than motorcycles, 50–850 cc (3.1–51.9 cu in), and have all-enclosing bodywork that makes them cleaner and quieter than motorcycles, as well as having more built-in storage space. Automatic clutches and continuously variable transmissions (CVT) make them easier to learn on and to ride. Scooters usually have smaller wheels than motorcycles. Scooters usually have the engine as part of the swingarm, so that their engines travel up and down with the suspension.
Modenas Kriss 120cc underbone
Underbones are small-displacement motorcycle with a step-through frame, descendants of the original Honda Super Cub. They are differentiated from scooters by their larger wheels and their use of footpegs instead of a floorboard. They often have a gear shifter with an automatic clutch.
The moped used to be a hybrid of the bicycle and the motorcycle, equipped with a small engine (usually a small two-stroke engine up to 50 cc, but occasionally an electric motor) and a bicycle drivetrain, and motive power can be supplied by the engine, the rider, or both. There is also Sport mopeds – a type of moped that resembles a sport bike.
In many places, mopeds are subject to less stringent licensing than bikes with larger engines and are popular as very cheap motorbikes, with the pedals seeing next to no use. Mopeds were very popular in the United States during the fuel-crisis of the late 1970s and early 1980s, but their popularity has fallen off sharply since the mid-1980s. In response to rising fuel prices in the first decade of the 2000s, U.S. scooter and moped ridership saw a resurgence. Sales of motorcycles and scooters declined 43.2% in 2009, and continued to decrease in the first quarter of 2010, with scooter sales doing worst, down 13.3% compared to a 4.6% drop for all two-wheelers.
There are various types of off-road motorcycles, also known as dirt bikes, specially designed for off-road events. The term off-road refers to a driving surface that is not conventionally paved. This is a rough surface, often created naturally, such as sand, gravel, a river, mud or snow. This type of terrain can sometimes only be travelled on with vehicles designed for off-road driving (such as SUVs, ATVs, snowmobiles or mountain bikes) or vehicles that have off-road equipment. Compared to road-going motorcycles, off-road machines are simpler and lighter, having long suspension travel, high ground clearance, and rugged construction with little bodywork and no fairings for less damage in spills. Wheels (usually 21″ front, 18″ rear) have knobby tires, often clamped to the rim with a rim lock.
There are specialized motorcycles for a variety of off-road motorcycle sports:
- Motocross — Such bikes (once called “scramblers”) are raced on short, closed off-road tracks with a variety of obstacles. The motorcycles have a small fuel tank for lightness and compactness. Long-travel suspension allows riders to take jumps at high speed. Motocross engines are usually single-cylinder two-stroke or four-stroke units, which vary in size from 50cc up to about 650cc. Motocross sidecar outfits have bigger engines, usually four-stroke and often twin-cylinder. Motocross bikes are also used in Freestyle Motocross.
- Enduro — A modified and road-legal motocross bike, having the addition of a horn, lights, effective silencing and a number plate. Enduro riders compete over a longer course (which may include roads); and an enduro event may last between one day and six days (such as the ISDE). Some enduro events (known as “multi-lappers”) are held on rather shorter circuits, not unlike scramble tracks. “Multilappers” are especially popular with novice riders.
- Rally raid, or “Rallies” — A special type of enduro bike with a significantly larger fuel tank for very long distance racing, typically through deserts (e.g. Paris-Dakar rally). Engine capacities tend to be larger, usually between 450 cc and 750 cc.
- Trail — A trail bike is a dual-purpose bike, made for on-road and recreational off-road riding. A trail bike may resemble an enduro bike, but since a trail bike is not intended to be used for competition, it may be (i) less rugged, and (ii) equipped with dual-purpose tyres and with more road legal equipment, such as indicators, mirrors and extra instruments.
- Trials — Trials riding is a specialized form of off-road competition testing balancing skills and precision rather than speed. For a trials bike, low weight and crisp throttle response power are the priorities, so a trials bike tends to have a small (125 cc to 300 cc) engine, two-strokes being common. During the trial, the rider stands on the footpegs, so a trials bike will have only a vestigial seat, or even no seat at all. Fuel tanks are very small, giving a very limited range.
- Track racing — High-speed oval racing, typically with no brakes, nor rear suspension. The engines, fuelled by methanol, are long-stroke four-stroke singles, such as JAP orJawa. They have at most two gears. Some types, such as speedway, and grass-track bikes, are designed to take left turns only.
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Police motorcycles are job-related motorcycles
Some motorcycles are specially adapted for specific job functions, such as those used by the ambulance, blood bikes, fire, and military services, and for specialized delivery services, such as pizza deliveries. Beginning in the 1960s with the Mountain Goat specialized motorcycles were developed for use on farms.
While motorcycles typically have two wheels, some motorized tricycles are classed as three-wheeled motorcycles. Some brands have made various types of three-wheelers direct from the factory. Most of these vehicles are treated as motorcycles for registration or licensing purposes.
Tilting three-wheelers keep all three wheels on the ground when they lean to negotiate curves. These include Honda’s Gyro range, all of which have a front wheel that leans and a pair of rear wheels that do not, and the Piaggio MP3, which has two front wheels and a single rear wheel, all of which lean.
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- The MAIDS report, using the OECD Road Transport Research Programme methodology, uses the following nine classifications for motorcycles, mopeds, and scooters, providing one illustration of each:
- Conventional street example: Triumph Bonneville T100
- Sport example: Triumph Daytona 955i
- Cruiser example: Suzuki Marauder
- Chopper example: a Harley-Davidson chopper in David Mann red
- Touring example: Honda Gold Wing GL1800
- Scooter example: Vespa Granturismo 200
- Step-through example: a moped
- Sport Touring example: Ducati ST4s
- Enduro example: KTM 950 Adventure S
- International Coordinating Committee of the Expert Group for Motorcycle Accident Investigations (2001), Motorcycles: Common International Methodology for On-Scene, In-Depth Accident Investigation, Paris: Road Transport Research Programme; of the Directorate for Science Technology and Industry; of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD/DSTI/RTR/RS9/ICC
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sportbike: a motorcycle designed for aggressive performance, especially cornering
- “sport bike”. Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) (“…a powerful, lightweight motorcycle, designed for optimal speed and handling” )
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Streetfighter — Also known as a ‘hooligan’ cycle, this is a sports-bike stripped of all superfluous bodywork.
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streetfighter: a type of superbike customized for maximum speed and performance.
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Types of motorcycles
Street Cruiser Sport Touring Standard Custom Dual-sport Off-road Small Electric Emergency services Other